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Infertility Treatment Specialist, Chronic Disease Treatment Specialist, Alternative Medicine Treatment Specialist, Infertility - Alternative Medicine Specialist
DR PRAKASH SHAH
M.D.
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Disease Brain
 
The brain is the center of the nervous system. The brain is located in the head, protected by the skull and close to the primary sensory apparatus of vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell.

A brain is extremely complex. The cerebral cortex of the human brain contains roughly 15–33 billion neurons, linked with up to 10,000 synaptic connections each. Each cubic millimeter of cerebral cortex contains roughly one billion synapses. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body and target them to specific recipient cells.

The brain controls the other organ systems of the body, either by activating muscles or by causing secretion of hormones. This centralized control allows rapid and coordinated responses to changes in the environment.

Sponges, which lack a central nervous system, are capable of coordinated body contractions and even locomotion. The spinal cord by itself contains neural circuitry capable of generating reflex responses as well as simple motor patterns such as swimming or walking. However, sophisticated control of behavior on the basis of complex sensory input requires the information-integrating capabilities of a centralized brain.

The brain is composed of two broad classes of cells: neurons and glia. Glial cells outnumber neurons roughly 4 to 1 in the cerebral cortex.  Glia comes in several types, which perform a number of critical functions, including structural support, metabolic support, insulation, and guidance of development.

neurons are capable of sending signals to each other over long distances. They send these signals by means of an axon. These axons transmit signals in the form of electrochemical pulses called action potentials Axons transmit signals to other neurons, or to non-neuronal cells, by means of specialized junctions called synapses.

The neurotransmitter binds to receptor molecules in the membrane of the target cell.

Axons actually fill most of the space in the brain. Often large groups of them are bundled together in what are called nerve fiber tracts. Many axons are wrapped in thick sheaths of a fatty substance called myelin, which serves to greatly increase the speed of action potential propagation. Myelin is white, so parts of the brain filled exclusively with nerve fibers appear as white matter, in contrast to the gray matter that marks areas with high densities of neuron cell bodies. The total length of myelinated axons in an average adult human brain is well over 100,000 kilometers (62,000 mi).

Despite rapid scientific progress, how brains work remains a mystery. The operations of individual neurons and synapses are now understood in considerable detail, but the way they cooperate in ensembles of thousands or millions has been very difficult to understand.

Investigations such as EEG and brain imaging do not reveal the activity of individual neurons.
 
 
BRAIN  DISEASES
 
Alzheimers Disease
Anencephaly
Anoxic Change
Arnold Chiari Malformation
Cerebellar Abscess
Cerebellar Astrocytoma
Cerebellar hemangioblastoma
Cerebral Aneurysm
Cerebral Edema
Cerebral Infarct
Cystic Cerebellar Infarct
Encephalocele
Germinal Plate Hemorrhage
Glioblastoma
Hemorrhagic Infarct
Hydrocephalus
Immature Fetal Brain
Immature infant brain
Infarcts of cerebral hemispheres
Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Intrapontine hemorrhage
Intraventricular Hemorrhage
  Meningioma
Meningitis
Metastatic Adenocarcinoma
Microcephaly
Middle Cerebral Artery Infarct
Multiple Sclerosis
Old Cerebral Infarct
Oligodendroglioma
Petechial Hemorrhages
Recent Infarct
Small Old Infarcts
Subacute infarct
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Toxoplasma Encephalitis
Tuberous Sclerosis
 
 
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